Units and normalization conventions in Lumerical solvers
Units for electrical and thermal solvers
Unless otherwise stated, Lumerical uses SI units.
Quantity 
Description 
Units 
Unit description 

L 
Length units in semiconductor models This is reflected in the semiconductor device literature, and in the parameter coefficients for the material models. 
cm 
Centimeter 
E 
Energy The electron energy E is related to the local electrostatic potential (voltage) as E = qV. All energies (and voltages) are referenced from the (equilibrium) Fermi level of an electrical contact in the system. 
eV 
Electron volt 
n 
Electron density 
1/cm3 
Per centimeter cube 
p 
Hole density 
1/cm3 
Per centimeter cube 
Jn 
Electron current density 
A/cm2 
Ampere per centimeter square 
Jp 
Hole current density 
A/cm2 
Ampere per centimeter square 
N 
Net doping density The doping density is positive for ptype (acceptor) dopants and negative for ntype (donor) dopants 
1/cm3 
Per centimeter cube 
E 
Electric field 
V/m 
Volt per meter 
V 
Electrostatic potential (voltage) 
V 
Volt 
Units for optical solvers
Unless otherwise stated, Lumerical's optical solvers used SI units at all times.
General
Quantity 
Description 
Units 
Unit description 

f=w/2p 
Frequency 
Hz 
Hertz 
x,y,z 
Position 
m 
Meter 
t 
Time 
s 
Seconds 
Time domain electromagnetic fields
Quantity 
Description 
Units 
Unit description 

E(t) 
Electric field as function of time 
V/m 
Volts per meter 
E(t)2 
Electric field intensity as a function of time 
(V/m)2 
Volts squared per meter squared 
H(t) 
Magnetic field as a function 
A/m 
Amperes per meter 
H(t)2 
Magnetic field intensity as a function of time 
(A/m)2 
Amperes squared per meter squared 
P(t) 
Poynting vector as a function of time 
W/m2 
Watts per meter squared 
Power(t) 
Power as a function of time 
W 
Watts 
Dipole moments
Quantity 
Description 
Units 
Unit description 

p 
Electric dipole in 3D 
Cm 
Coulomb meters 
m 
Magnetic dipole in 3D 
Am2 
Ampere meters squared 
p 
Electric field in 2D 
Cm/m 
Coulomb meters per meter 
m 
Magnetic dipole in 2D 
Am2/m 
Ampere meters squared per meter 
Frequency domain electromagnetic fields  Steady state, single frequency, cwnorm data
Quantity 
Description 
Units 
Unit description 

E(w) 
Electric field as a function of angular frequency 
V/m 
Volts per meter 
E(w)2 
Electric field intensity as a function of angular frequency 
(V/m)2 
Volts squared per meter squared 
H(w) 
Magnetic field as a function of angular frequency 
A/m 
Amperes per meter 
H(w)2 
Magnetic field intensity as a function of angular frequency 
(A/m)2 
Amperes squared per meter squared 
P(w) 
Poynting vector as a function of angular frequency 
W/m2 
Watts per meter squared 
Power(w) 
Power as a function of angular frequency 
W 
Watts 
Power(w) 
2D Power as a function of angular frequency 
W/m 
Watts per meter 
Frequency domain electromagnetic fields  nonorm data
Quantity 
Description 
Units 
Unit description 

E(w) 
Electric field as a function of angular frequency 
V/m/Hz 
Volts per meter per Hertz 
E(w)2 
Electric field intensity as a function of angular frequency 
(V/m/Hz)2 
Volts squared per meter squared per Hertz squared 
H(w) 
Magnetic field as a function of angular frequency 
A/m/Hz 
Amperes per meter per Hertz 
H(w)2 
Magnetic field intensity as a function of angular frequency 
(A/m/Hz)2 
Amperes squared per meter squared per Hertz squared 
P(w) 
Poynting vector as a function of angular frequency 
W/m2/Hz2 
Watts per meter squared per Hertz squared 
Power(w) 
Power as a function of angular frequency 
W/Hz2

Watts per Hertz squared 
Power(w) 
2D Power as a function of angular frequency 
W/Hz2/m 
Watts per Hertz squared per meter 
Source amplitudes
Beam sources
When specifying the amplitude for beam sources, the "amplitude" refers to the peak electric field amplitude in units of V/m. For example, if a Gaussian beam has the following electric field distribution in time and space:
$$
E(x, y, z, t)=E_{0} \sin \left(\omega_{0}\left(tt_{0}\right)\right) \exp \left(\frac{\left(tt_{0}\right)^{2}}{2(\Delta t)^{2}}\right) \exp \left(\frac{\left(x^{2}+y^{2}\right)}{w_{0}^{2}}\right)
$$
Then the "amplitude" refers to the value of E0 and has units of V/m. It is worth noting that different beams will inject different amounts of power for a given source amplitude.
Dipole sources
For dipole sources, amplitude refers to the amplitude of the point source whose units are listed below. Base amplitude refers to the amplitude that will generate a radiated CW power of 10 nW/m in 2D simulations and 1 fW in 3D simulations, and total amplitude refers to the amplitude actually used in the simulations which is the product of the amplitude and the base amplitude.
Dipole source amplitude units are
 Cm for 3D electric dipole sources
 Am2 for 3D magnetic dipole sources
 Cm/m for 2D electric dipole sources
 Am2/m for 2D magnetic dipole sources