This function analytically calculates the dipole emission properties of an unpatterned multilayer stack. For structures that can be reduced to 1D this is technique is much more efficient than running fully vectorial simulations with FDTD.
For more information on the theory behind this approach, see Stack dipole halfspace example. The radiance is calculated via the equation. Results returned are the luminescence \( (cd/m^2) \) and radiance \( W/steradian/m^2) \) as a function of emission angle, as well as the corresponding X, Y, Z tristimulus values, assuming current density of 1 \( A/m^2\). The CIE 1931 color functions [1] are used for calculating X, Y, Z.
$$
\text {stackdipole}(\theta)=\int_{\lambda}(j \times e f \times st) \left(\frac{r d \times F_{r a d}(\theta, \lambda)}{r d \times F(\lambda)+(1r d)}\right) \left(\text {photon probability}(\lambda) \times E_{ph}(\lambda)\right) d \lambda
$$
References
[1] CIE Proceedings (1932), 1931. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stackdipole is a component of the STACK product, and requires a STACK license. To run the command, you will also need access to any of Lumerical's products that have a GUI. STACK is most frequently used with FDTD, but this command can also be called from Lumerical's other products.
Syntax 
Description 

dipole_emission = stackdipole(n,d,f,z,dipole_spec, orientation,res,direction, ef,st,rd); 
Analytically calculates the dipole emission properties of a multilayer stack 
Parameter 
Default value 
Type 
Description 


n 
required 
vector 
Refractive index of each layer. Size is either Nlayers, or Nlayers x length(f) if dispersive materials are involved. 

d 
required 
vector 
Thickness of each layer. Size is Nlayers. 

f 
required 
vector 
Frequency vector. 

z 
required 
vector 
Position of the dipoles (0 is the bottom of the stack). Size is Ndipoles. 

dipole_spec 
required 
vector 
Dipole spectrum. This is treated as a power intensity distribution, integrated by midpoint rule in wavelength. The photon probability distribution is calculated by normalizing dipole_spec/f. Size is Ndipoles x length(f). 

orientation 
optional 
0 
vector 
Orientation of the dipoles. The options are Unpolarized: 0 Vertical ppolarized : 1 Horizontal spolarized: 2 horizontal ppolarized : 3 Size is Ndipoles. 
res 
optional 
1000 
number 
The resolution for far field emission angle. 
direction 
optional 
1 
number 
Choice of far field half space, this can be +1 (top) or 1 (bottom). 
ef 
optional 
1 
vector 
The exciton fraction. The default value is 1, which means that every carrier results in an exciton. Size is Ndipoles. 
st 
optional 
0.25 
vector 
The singlet exciton fraction. The default value is 0.25, which means that there are 3 spin triplets per spin singlet. Size is Ndipoles. 
rd 
optional 
1 
vector 
The relative decay rate. The default value is 1, which means that every singlet exciton results in a photon and there is no contribution from nonradiative decay processes. Size is Ndipoles. 
Example
Use stackdipole to calculate the radiated power of a dipole source in a dielectric half space. # geometry: halfspace of material n1 and n2 n1 = 1.5; # lower halfspace n2 = 1.0; # upper halfspace # source: monochrome 500nm dipole # position: in material n2 delta nm from interface wavelength = 500e9; delta = 80e9; # angular_res: resolution for emission angle (farfield angle) angular_res = 173; n = [n1; n2]; d = [0, 2*delta]; f = [c/wavelength]; z = [delta]; spectrum = [1.0]; result_unpol = stackdipole(n,d,f,z,spectrum,[0],angular_res); result_pVert = stackdipole(n,d,f,z,spectrum,[1],angular_res); result_pHorz = stackdipole(n,d,f,z,spectrum,[3],angular_res); result_sHorz = stackdipole(n,d,f,z,spectrum,[2],angular_res); plot(result_unpol.theta,result_unpol.radiance,"emission angle (degrees)","power/steradian (W/steradian/m^2)","unpolarized"); plot(result_pVert.theta,result_pVert.radiance,"emission angle (degrees)","power/steradian (W/steradian/m^2)","vertical P orientation"); plot(result_pHorz.theta,result_pHorz.radiance,"emission angle (degrees)","power/steradian (W/steradian/m^2)","horizontal P orientation");plot(result_sHorz.theta,result_sHorz.radiance,"emission angle (degrees)","power/steradian (W/steradian/m^2)","horizontal S orientation"); # calculate power sin_theta = sin(pi/180*result_unpol.theta); #integrate power theta 0pi/2 and phi 02pi total_power_pVert_upward = (0.5*pi)*(2*pi)*integrate(sin_theta*result_pVert.radiance,1,linspace(0,1,angular_res));
See Also
Stack optical solver overview, stackrt, stackfield, stackpurcell, Stack dipole halfspace, OLED slab mode analysis